List of questions

  • Uppsala
  • Lund
A
ABB Corporate ResearchWorkshop language: English
  • 342

    How to combine a shallow power semiconductor junction (silicon) and Aluminium in a high temperature environment, and yet avoid a change of electrical properties?


    In operation the silicon diffuse into the aluminum layer. What potential diffusion barriers could be relevant to avoid material transfer? Other solutions?

  • 343

    What mechanisms cause relaxation/creep in porous matarials, i.e. cellulose based materials, at different mechanical loads (compression, tensile, shear). How can you influence these mechanisms?


    Cellulose based materials are used as electrical insulation materials. To increase reliability in electrical apparatus the mechanical stability of the insulation material must be known and be predictabel.


Applied Nano SurfacesWorkshop language: English
  • 389

    How to develop a a non-invasive testing method for a mechanochemical surface finishing process? The testing method, e.g: based on Eddy current conductivity measurement or based on Barkhausen noise testing should be used for controlling the process and guarantee compliance with quality standards.


    ANS has developed a mechanochemical surface finishing process. The process combines extreme-pressure mechanical treatment of the component surface with a tribochemical deposition of a low-friction antiwear film based on a solid lubricant such as tungsten disulfide (WS2). The mechanical treatment is essential for burnishing of the component surface by leveling off asperities, for building up compressive stresses within the underlying material layer, and for initiating the triboreaction that leads to the in-situ formation and interfacial nucleation of solid lubricant onto the said surface. This gives a smoother surface with significantly reduced coefficient of boundary friction and greatly improved wear-resistance and lubricant film strength. The ANS triboconditioning process requires the following three components: (i) tool, (ii) workpiece, and (iii) process fluid. The ANS process has a certain runnability window. Too low tool pressure or too few tool passes fail to provide sufficient burnishing effect to achieve desired surface roughness and to produce a sufficient amount of solid lubricant, while too high tool pressure and too many tool passes start to wear down the workpiece and generate defects in the subsurface layer. Hence, a non-invasive testing method is desired for controlling the process and guarantee compliance with quality standards. ANS is interested to find a partner helping us evaluate applicability of the following two techniques for the said task: (1) Testing based on Eddy current conductivity measurement (2) Testing based on Barkhausen noise testing Several material samples will be manufactured by ANS with different degree of treatment, including intact, undertreated, normally treated, and overtreated, both in terms of load and time, samples. We need help with finding out if the mentioned techniques are suitable for this task and if there are any correlations between the measured system response and processing conditions / time, which can be used as a basis for quality control. Requirements to the test method: (1) Quick and relatively inexpensive; (2) Low sensitivity to surface contamination / traces of lubricant; (3) Good reproducibility for a given material type and specimen geometry.


Atlas Copco SecorocWorkshop language: English
  • 372

    Which parameter or parameters have the most influence on thermal fatigue of cemented carbide?


    Thermal fatigue on cemented carbide inserts in rock tools occur when drilling in certain types of rock formation.


Atlas Copco Secoroc ABWorkshop language: English
  • 373

    How does the grain size of the Co in a sinter WC-Co matrix affect the material properties?


    Grain size of the WC is often measured and related to the material properties of the material. However in publication the grain size of the Co is often neglected.


Avure Technologies ABWorkshop language: English
  • 371

    How does the pressure affect the solidification process for Powder Metallurgy parts (using HIP), for example how is the grain growth affected?


    In a HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) process a pressure of about 1000-2000 bar is applied at a temperature of approx. 1000 ° C-1400 ° C, which is far above the yield strength of the materials. What happens when the material is cooled, but the pressure is retained?


B
Butong ABWorkshop language: English
  • 315

    Is it possible to improve tensile strength in concrete by adding additives (like e.g. fibres)?


    It is well known that the tensile strength is increased when using a very pure concrete or concrete reinforcement. The problem is that when designing thin structures it would be desirable to achieve a tensile strength close to what is found in metals. In addition, concrete reinforcement is sensitive to moister when closer than 50 mm from surface. For more information and pictures of products, please see www.butong.se

  • 316

    What chemical additives can be used in concrete, to clean air or water in severly polluted areas?


    For more information and pictures of products, please see www.butong.se


Böhler Uddeholm Precision Strip ABWorkshop language: English
  • 337

    What is the relationship of “damping and microstructure” in low alloyed steels?


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  • 338

    How to further improve the corrosion resistance of conventional martensitic stainless steel ?


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  • 339

    How are lubricating properties, hardness and wear resistance of advanced ceramics correlated in coated doctor blades application?


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J
JernkontoretWorkshop language: English
  • 382

    How does hydrogen interact with a metallic matrix ?


    Hydrogen in steel is usually present in the form of interstitials or alternatively trapped at inhomogeneities with varying binding energies. How can the latter be altered to minimise hydrogen- induced damage (particularly the propensity to cracking) ? What analysis techniques are available today to determine the amount of hydrogen present, its distribution and transport. In contrast to hydrogen nitrogen has numerous positive effects in some steels - why ?

  • 383

    Which properties affect the rheology of powder and how is it possible to obtain a more homogeneous distribution of shapes and sizes of metal powder grains ?


    It is important that powder in a mould is evenly distributed and not concentrated at specific locations. An increased degree of fluidity would contribute to a more uniform distribution. How can fluidity be increased ? It is dependent on the particle concentration, geometry, size distribution and interaction forces, but what other factors are significant ? How can the fraction of spherical particles be increased to improve fluidity ?


Jerol ABWorkshop language: English
  • 381

    How can wetting between glas fibers and polyester be increased? What analysis methods can be used for studying the degree of wetting?


    Jerol is a manufacturer of poles made of glas fiber composits. Target market is road signs, tele communication infrastructure, electricity grid, among other possible areas. In the process, the glas fibers are winded around a steel core, while the polyester and a hardening component is applied during the winding. The polyester works as a glue and after the system is heat treated, the pole is done. www.jerol.se


M
Mindray Medical SwedenWorkshop language: English
  • 375

    Are there any IR transparent coating technologies to ensure water persistence and/or to control condensation and adsorption of water?


    Hydrophobic/hydrophilic IR transparent coating Are there any IR transparent coating techniques available that can 1. ensure water persistence of e.g. a BaFl2 window with smallest possible attenuation 2. ensure hydrophobic behavior of surface to avoid adsorption on window 3. ensure hydrophilic behavior of surface to achieve a thin water film on window 4. utilize hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface structure to drain adsorbed water droplets from window 5. create a surface structure that can drain water droplets by capillary force or other physical phenomenon Background: Mindray Medical Sweden develops measurement devices for medical applications where the patient is connected to a life supporting device such as a respirator. The measurement technology selected for the AIMday discussion rely on light absorption by molecules built on NDIR light travelling through a gas cuvette. The measurement environment in the cuvette is vaporish with gas containing mucus, water droplets and water vapor up to RH 100%. All materials are also exposed to aggressive anesthetic gases, such as sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane. Patient security is of highest importance thus involved material may not in any case react and leach into the breath circuit making it toxic, cancerogenic or in any other way bio-incompatible. Materials should preferably conform to biomedical standards and be chemical inert or must be proven to fulfill the standard requirements. The absorption signals are very small in a wavelength span of 3-15 um. Few materials allow transmission at these wavelengths and the present chosen window material will unfortunately be impacted by water and water vapor and blur. It is necessary to find coating technologies that can avoid the water vapor contact. It is also important to direct all light onto the detector without further attenuation thus a technology to either avoid adsorption on window surface or to ensure a well-defined thin water film is needed.

  • 376

    Are there materials or structures that can ensure passive (or active) evaporation of water and water vapor out from a gas chamber to the ambient environment, which nevertheless are impenetrable by gas?


    Evaporating material We are searching for biomedical compliant materials with similar or improved behavior as the Pebax polyether block amid or the ionomer used in Nafion? Background: Mindray Medical Sweden develops measurement devices for medical applications where a patient is connected to a life supporting device such as a respirator. The breathing gas is typically vaporish containing mucus, water droplets and water vapor up to RH 100%. This content needs to be removed from the gas before entering the measurement device to ensure signal quality and a long device life time. This is typically implemented through a water trap consisting of a water separating filter and a water container, but there are some drawbacks and an evaporating solution used to separate water and water vapor could likely improve the system performance significantly. The breathing gas also contains contents of aggressive anesthetic agents, such as sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane, which narrows the selection of possible materials to chemical inert ones. Patient security is of highest importance thus involved materials may not in any way react and leach into the breathing circuit making it toxic, cancerogenic or in any other way bio-incompatible. Materials in the patient circuit connection should preferably conform to biomedical standards, or must be proved not causing any harm to patient. There are products available with material having very interesting properties. E.g. there is the Nafion product utilizing DuPonts ionomer material. A chemical inert fluorocarbon polymer. It is a copolymer of perfluoroo-3,6-dioza–4-methyl-7octene-sulfonic acid and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene)) which utilizes the chemical properties of sulfonic acid for ion transportation. For more information see http://www.permapure.com/support/key-concepts/ And there is the Pebax material with very interesting properties, a Polyether Block Amid built on polyethyleneoxide, with polyamide-12, polyamide-11 or polyamide-12.12. For more information see http://www.pebax.com/en/ We are now searching for other materials with the similar transportation/evaporating properties that can be used in medical application and shaped to narrow high precision tubes in a conventional manufacturing process to a competitive cost? Can water and water vapor transportation in only one direction be ensured? Any gas flow over the barrier must be prevented. Among actual operating conditions are - both lower and higher pressure in gas chamber compared to the ambient environment of a few hPa. - both lower and higher relative humidity in gas chamber compared to the ambient environment. - gas of near body temperatures entering a sampling line of room temperature or cooler resulting in condensation. The gas flow diverted from patient breathing circuit is small, between 50 - 200 ml/min. The water production is approximately 20 ml/24h.

  • 377

    Are there material and methods to separate small particles, bacteria and virus from a gas flow? And are there material and methods to separate water droplets from a gas flow?


    Bacteria and water separation Background: Mindray Medical Sweden develops measurement devices for medical applications where a patient is connected to a life supporting device, such as a respirator. In re-circulated systems the breathing gas will pass a multi-use measurement device and then being fed back to the breathing circuit. It is of high importance to separate bacteria and virus from the gas before entering the multi-use device to avoid cross-contamination. The bacteria separation is typically handled by a disposable. Bacterial cells are typically of a spherical size with diameters of 0.5–5.0 mm. The average virus is about one one-hundredth the size of the average bacterium. The problem with a filtering system with a pore size of a virus is that the pressure drop exceeds what can be handled by the system. Thus, the separating problem is delicate, handling very small particles and avoid destroying the signal rise time of the gas front. Another system problem is to separate water from the gas flow. Condensed water on the cuvette window of measuring device will impact the accuracy and shorten the device life time. The present Mindray water trap technology uses a hydrophobic Gortex filter membrane with pore size of 0.45 um combining both bacteria and water separation. This setup ensures a bacteria filtration efficiency exceeding 99,9990%. However this membrane needs to be replaced as the supplier will withdraw from the medical market and a flour free material is required for environmental reasons. Other methods of bacteria and water separation are of interest, thus the material discussion should not be limited to a membrane solution. Neither is it necessary for the material or method to cover both aspects of water and bacteria. Instead the aspects of trapping even smaller virus particles is of interest with a material/method that will not rise the pressure drop in the system. The gas flow diverted from patient breathing circuit is small, between 50 - 200 ml/min. The water production is approximately 20 ml/24h. The gas chamber condition is often rather similar to the ambient room condition at the hospital maybe with a slighter higher temperature, pressure and relative humidity. The breathing gas also contains contents of aggressive anesthetic agents, such as sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane, which narrows the selection of possible materials to chemical inert ones. Patient security is of highest importance thus involved materials may not in any case react and leach into the breathing circuit making it toxic, cancerogenic or in any other way bio-incompatible. Materials in the patient circuit connection should preferably conform to biomedical standards, or must be proved not causing any harm to patient. The material also needs to be able to be processed by conventional manufacturing techniques.

  • 378

    Are there any new modern rubber or synthetic material sustainable in anesthetic gas-applications? Are there standardized test methods to evaluate mechanical properties of a material subjected to chemical aggressive environments, such as anesthetic gases? Are there test methods to evaluate leach and other chemical reactions of a material that can be unhealthy for the patient?


    Many materials absorb or adsorb our anesthetic gases (sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane), which impact their mechanical and chemical properties. 1. Are there standardized test methods to evaluate mechanical properties of a material subjected to chemical aggressive environments, such as anesthetic gases? 2. Are there standardized test methods to evaluate leach and other chemical reactions of a material that can be harmful and unhealthy for the patient? We are also looking for new modern materials of 3. rubber that are fatigue sustainable, chemical invert, gas impenetrable, FDA certified, without absorbing nor adsorbing our gases. It shall be manufactured into small precision parts, such as o-rings, non-return valves etc. 4. synthetics that are free from Phtalates, flexible, sustainable, chemical inert, patient safe, cheap, environment friendly, which can be manufactured to high precision tubes of small equal dimension of 0.9 mm inner diameter. 5. Are there technologies available to ensure an extra smooth surface structures in a low cost production or by coating? Background: Mindray Medical Sweden develops measurement devices for medical applications where a patient is connected to a life supporting device such as a respirator. The breathing gas may contain contents of aggressive anesthetic agents, such as sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane. The chemical aggressive environment changes the mechanical properties of materials, as well as the chemical properties when gas is absorbed or adsorbed. Patient security is of highest importance, thus involved materials may not in any way react and leach into the re-circulated breathing circuit making it toxic, cancerogenic or in any other way bio-incompatible. They should preferably conform to biomedical standards or must be proven not causing any harm to patient. Environmental aspects are also evaluated when looking into new materials. We can see the problem with changed mechanical properties in e.g. rubber and synthetics used in tubes, non-return valves, o-rings and adhesives. We need improved test methods to predict the behavior and life time of these parts. Many industrial applications must have similar problem and the question is if common test methods and methodologies have been developed to qualify mechanical properties in a chemical aggressive environment and even been standardized? Are there also standardized test methods to evaluate leach and other chemical reactions of materials that can make the gas toxic, cancerogenic or in any way be harmful and unhealthy for the patient? In present products where rubber material is needed we know Viton (fkm/fbm), silicon, chloroprene, and epdm with peroxide vulcanization to conform with the biomedical standard. But they do not always behave satisfactorily. Are there other more modern gum materials that we could use having the properties of being fatigue sustainable, chemical invert, gas impenetrable, FDA certified, non-absorbing nor adsorbing our gases, and can be manufactured into small precision parts, such as o-rings, non-return valves etc.? Are there technologies available to ensure extra smooth surface structure of rubber. The surface of a non-return valve operating at very low pressure needs to be blank without much pore structure to seal properly. Could any coating be help? The surface may not be soggy or oiled so that performance degradation due to dirt can be avoided. Maybe there are better materials than rubber available? We also need better synthetic material. In present product a coextruded PE/PVC synthetic tube is used, but the manufacturing cost is very high and in addition to that PVC should be avoided. Today we know that polyethylene, polyurethane, teflon, viton are biomed classified. Are there other new materials for tube manufacturing being free from Phtalates, flexible, sustainable, chemical inert, patient safe, cheap, environment friendly, and which can be manufactured to high precision tubes of small even dimension of 0.9 mm inner diameter.


O
ObjectraWorkshop language: English
  • 436

    How to deposit a well defined layer(s) on a substrate for calibration of bores?


    The Coating Drill is an instrument which can be used to measure film layers on different substrates. It is based on my own patents. It works as follows: 1) You bore in the layer to create a crater with very well defined angle, between the surface and a line parallell to the edge of the bore. 2) You measure the distance between the two concentrical circles, from the top surface to the bottom surface of the layer, both seen and measured by using a measuring microscope. The film thickness is found by simple trigonometric calculation. The material problem is to find a very well defined layer, preferably in the class interval 10-25 microns. The film layer should if possible be known in tenths part of a micron. Another demand is that the adhesion of the layer to the substate must be extremely good, if not the concentric circle in the bottom of the layer will be frayed .


S
Sandvik CoromantWorkshop language: English
  • 320

    How do we analyze density distributions in (heavy) compacted powder materials?


    Sandvik Coromant is a world leading producer of cutting tools. The cutting tool insert is manufactured through powder metallurgy, mostly of a cemented carbide material such as a WC and Cobalt mixture, which give the insert a high density. Through compaction of powder and sintering a fully dense body is created. During pressing density variations in the body appear, which leads to uneven shrinkage during sintering and also porosity may occur. To understand these density variations, we are interested in finding an experimental method that gives us the relative density in different parts of the body. Note: We are not interested in quantifying the mean density of the sample; it is the differences throughout the sample which is of interest.


SenseAirWorkshop language: English
  • 297

    Are there any novel high-performance plastics which could be interesting for high-volume production of mirrors or embedded sensors?


    The plastic should not take up moisture or hydrocarbons, withstand more than +100°C and be as stable as possible.

  • 298

    What types of protective coatings for IR-reflecting surfaces, in terms of environmental and chemical stability, are available and well established for manufacturing ?


    Which is the most environmentally stable variant of protective coating for protection of mirrors operating in the IR-range (temp, humidity, corrosive gases, aso)? Also, it should be easy and cheap to use in high-volume manufacturing and preferably compatible with mirrors consisting of a thin metal layer on molded plastic. The main purpose is to avoid mirror aging and degradation.

  • 299

    A general question about glues and adhesion: What are the general techniques for increasing adhesion properties? And what simple and cheap tests are recommended for testing a glue joint between two materials?


    We´re interested in plastic materials and metals.


T
Tetra PakWorkshop language: English
  • 293

    How to quantify the mechanical material properties of thin layers (nm)?


    Tetra Pak is developing and manufacturing thin packaging material layers. We want to understand the mechnical behavior of these.

  • 294

    What instruments are available and can be used when you want the highest resolution possible on very small details, for example polymer chains, crystalline/amorphous parts, structural orientation in materials, etc.?


    We have some equipment at Tetra Pak SEM etc. Is something new available in the Academia?

  • 295

    What is the response of a polymer or an aluminium foil/aluminium when exposed to tensile stress or compressive loading, and is the material change symmetrical?


    The stress state is normally very complex ( ≠ uniaxial) in a real application. Thus, there is a need to understand the mechanical behavior for different stress states. Note that the mechanism in the two material systems can be very different.


Tetra Pak (Suisse) SAWorkshop language: English
  • 386

    Is it possible to induce crystallization of a thin polyethylene (PE) film on top of a substrate?


    The substrate can also be a thin PE film on top of another polymer substrate or on top of PE substrate. Temperature limit is set below the melting point of PE. This crystallization should provide a high degree of densification in order to improve barrier after deposition of SiOx layer. SiOx is a nanometer thin layer deposited on polymer by plasma technology.

  • 387

    Is it possible to develop cost effective thin polymer films with cheap fillers like for instance wood powder see WPC (wood plastic composites)?


    The purpose of food packaging is to preserve the quality of the food from its manufacture to consumer use. The most common quality losses are associated with water vapor and oxygen transfer. The demand for heat-stable and easily processable polymeric materials with good gas barrier properties is becoming more and more important. The gas transport coefficients vary generally with parameters which can be intrinsic to the polymer, such as the degree of crystallinity, the nature of the polymer, or even the thermal and mechanical histories of samples. Molecular orientation which usually develops in processing is known to have a major effect on the mechanical properties of both glassy and crystalline polymers. In order to achieve good barrier laminates, one key issue along the whole production chain (from film extrusion to lamination) is given by the material surface properties.

  • 388

    Polyketone can have good barrier properties. Is it possible to design cost efficient aliphatic structures with improved barrier properties?


    The purpose of food packaging is to preserve the quality of the food from its manufacture to consumer use. The most common quality losses are associated with water vapor and oxygen transfer. The demand for heat-stable and easily processable polymeric materials with good gas barrier properties is becoming more and more important. The gas transport coefficients vary generally with parameters which can be intrinsic to the polymer, such as the degree of crystallinity, the nature of the polymer, or even the thermal and mechanical histories of samples. Molecular orientation which usually develops in processing is known to have a major effect on the mechanical properties of both glassy and crystalline polymers. In order to achieve good barrier laminates, one key issue along the whole production chain (from film extrusion to lamination) is given by the material surface properties.


U
Uddeholms ABWorkshop language: English
  • 398

    How to prevent change in volume due to retained austenite in large steel tools?


    In large steel tools, there are sometimes small amounts of retained austenite left in the material. Austenite will eventually be transformed into other phases. This transformation will involve an undesired change in volume of the material. In lab tests with small samples a change in volume is observed after heat treatment at high temperatures, while a more stable material is observed after heat treatment at lower temperatures. What could this be due to? One possibility is that the retained austenite somehow is stabilized by heat treatment at lower temperatures. In addition a small amount of retained austenite that nonetheless remains at high temperature heat treatment is located in critical areas in the material. Another possibility is that there is more austenite than what is visible (analysis made indicates that there is very little retained austenite after heat treatment at higher temperatures).

  • 399

    Is it possible to predict how forging and rolling affect re-crystallization in steel?


    In rolling and forging inhomogeneity is formed in the material because of un-isotropic deformation. The Simulations that have been performed to predict these effects do not match with the actual effects observed in materials that the company work with. Are there other approaches than existing simulation methods.

  • 400

    Are there any good simulation tools to obtain dissolution / precipitation of carbide and nitride precipitates in the steel matrix.


    How to simulate / calculate the stability of various Carbide and nitride precipitates in the steel matrix? If materials are more complex, i.e. including more than one sort of precipitation, today's simulation tools (e.g. prism or dictra) cannot handle the task.


V
VG Scienta ABWorkshop language: English
  • 302

    What lasers are available for photoelectron spectroscopy?


    Lasers are more and more used for photoelectron spectroscopy. Pico-second lasers are used for high resolution and femto-second lasers for the time domain. What energies are available? What is the best time to use for photoemission (pulse time vs resolution)? What is the repetition rate of lasers?

  • 340

    How to homogenously coat a conducting material that contain edges? The coating needs to be conducting and the sharp edges need to be preserved.


    The material to be coated contains edges and these needs to be coated homogenously. The coat thickness is less important. The coating needs to be vacuum compatible and backable to 150 degrees Celcius.

  • 341

    How to coat glass with an electrically conducting non magnetic material?


    The coating does not need to be homogenous , but vacuum compatible. The critical issue is to get a conducting material to stick on the glass and cover it completely.