List of questions
1) Is it possible to improve the mechanical properties of 3D-printed cellulose? (additives, fibers…)?
Within HV applications, cellulose based insulation is still the main component for a large number of products. For future applications, mechanical strength and stability of are paramount and the present 3D-printable solutions do not seem to live up the required strength/stiffness levels.
2) Is there a method to combine AM of soft magnetic materials with deposition of thin layers of insulating material?
Additive manufacturing (AM) offers large opportunities to produce novel topologies of electrical motors. This is of special interest to develop high efficiency motors for electrical vehicles. It has previously been shown that good material properties of soft magnetic steel can be attained by using AM, laser powder based fusion. However, one major challenge remains. In typical electrical motors one of the largest source of losses is due to eddy currents. In traditional electrical motors laminated sheets of steel is used where the insulating lamination drastically reduce the eddy currents. Up to now it has not been possible to combine the AM process of the magnetic steel with subsequent deposition of insulating layers. Among other things, the insulating layers need to withstand the deposition of the next layer of the steel and also the interfaces need to be mechanically strong. Optimally, it should be possible to place the insulating layers totally free in the design space and not be limited to planar sections in the growth direction.
3) What is the most suitable (low/moderate temperature) metallic bonding technique to replace a solder process?
To phase out lead from ABB products it is of uttermost importance to find proper alternative processes. Some important perspectives are temperature, processing time, complexity, uniformity of interface, stability of interface. The selected reference system to be discussed is SnPb.
What methods do exist or could be developed for efficient target material deposition in cyclotron solid targetry?
Please see attached pdfs. The document A background to GEMS PET Systems AB is a general document explaining who we are and what we do.
Chemical analysis of low-level radio activated materials – what options are available?
It’s sometimes of interest to investigate samples form cyclotron related materials from a chemical composition point of view. This can be accumulated dirt, deposits or other substances that are of interest to investigate. However often these substances are slightly radio activated and this creates problems since this is often considered a big concern/risk within companies offering chemical analysis services. Often this comes from lack of correctly understanding the risks and applying an unnecessary strict approach. What possibilities are there available to get slightly radio activated material analyzed? The attached document "A background to GEMS PET Systems AB" gives a good background to who we are and cyclotrons for PET.
Deposit inert materials on complex structures made of materials such as Nb
Please see attached pdf's. The document "A background to GEMS PET Systems AB" is a general document explaining who we are and what we do.
How could be developed a simple cleaning method for vacuum details for cyclotron accelerators?
The cyclotron accelerator includes a vacuum chamber where a lot of parts are included/mounted. To reduce pump down times and enable a good final vacuum level, these parts must be reasonably clean. A simple but at the same time robust/effective and environmentally friendly method is what we look for. The different materials used in the vacuum tank to some extent limits the use of detergents and methods possible. Today a combination of “YES” washing up liquid, ultrasonic (50 deg. C), deionized water rinsing and Isopropanol rinsing is used. This is followed by a 4h 100 deg. C oven drying. Final vacuum in the cyclotron is in the order of low 10 exp. -7 mbar or high 10 exp. -8 mbar.
Is it possible to 3D print polymer-graphene composites?
Graphamatech develops graphene-based nanocomposites materials. Additive manufacturing is becoming the future of industry and in combination with exciting new materials such as ours, new innovative solutions might be achieved that will change the industry as we know it today. We are searching for different techniques for 3D printing polymer-graphene composites (for example SLS printing). We want to know what potential 3D printing techniques exist for our materials and what the challenges and possibilities might be when using them.
Is it possible to enhance the performance of batteries using Graphene additives?
Graphamatech have developed a special type of graphene - Aros Graphene. This graphene has been shown to make better dispersions in polymers, metals and inorganics and thereby enable composites with enhanced properties. We would like to find out if our Aros Graphene could be used in battery technologies, such as lithium-ion batteries, where even incremental enhancement of performances are valuable. We are searching for different approaches where Aros Graphene could improve battery properties.
How could a sweeping impedance analyzer instrument and measurement method for measurement of NiCd cells and batteries be developed?
The instrument and method should fulfill the following specifications: o For measurement of NiCd cells and batteries in different charge states, at different temperatures and at different ages on the cells o Gives stable interpretable signals that give information about charge state (SOC), health state (SOH), electrolyte levels, etc. o The instrument / measuring method can hopefully go down to 0.1 Hz (this can be difficult to find) and up to the kHz range o It is accurate down to mOhm o For measuring over single cells and over whole batteries
Which additive can be used for reducing / eliminating dusting of powder in batteries?
o Today we have Teflon and PVA in small amounts (<1%) which are dust reducing. HPMC and CMC can also have some but very limited impact o The additive should / should be made in connection with the manufacture of the active anode and cathode materials o The substance can either be dissolved in the electrolyte (KOH, pH ~ 14.5) and then be harmless in the form of impurities, but may have some electrochemically positive side effect, alternatively flocculation / precipitation of impurities that dissolve in the liquor o The substance should not be foam forming (grease + lye = soap / foam) or have limited foaming that can be taken care of by anti-foams
What is the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) on the speciation of leached Fe from stainless steels, i.e., anions vs. neutrals vs. cations?
This fundamental question is very interesting for us in order to be able to judge the severity of such ions for membrane/ionomer degradation. This makes that anions cannot enter the membrane/ionomer phase since this phase is a giant anion repelling other anions. In contrast, cations are highly attracted to this phase and neutrals might be able to enter. Another interesting issue is to know which techniques could be good to determine the chemical nature of many leached species. Maybe 19F-NMR?