List of questions
What is the next generation structural material?
There is a general push towards high strength/low weight materials. Composite materials of today have reached there theoretical limit (?) – what would be the future materials/structural design to exceed the composite limits?
Is there a high fatigue resistance material with low density suitable for AM-manufacturing of robot parts?
When designing robots, fatigue and stiffness properties are of vital importance. One candidate is composites, e.g. epoxy/carbon fiber. However, in this AIMday discussion we would like to focus on metal solutions using Additive manufacturing (AM). AM opens up new possibilities when it comes to light weight design in general, for instance by using lattice structures, but e.g. the fatigue properties are often limited. This is partly due to the microstructure and surface roughness of the as-grown AM parts. The question is if it is possible to find a material optimized for AM and in combination with the proper AM process and post process, obtain superior material properties to a reasonable cost?
How can nanocellulose (cellulose nanofibers, CNF) alter/improve properties of cellulose- or composite based electrical insulation materials?
Cellulose based materials are used in electrical insulation components applied in power transformers. Paper as well as boards are used in different parts of the transformer design. The paper and boards are immersed in transformer oil. The benefits of using oil-impregnated cellulose based materials are the good electrical as well as mechanical properties. The availability, renewability and relatively low cost of cellulose based materials are also advantages. The question is if nanocellulose can improve material properties in this application. It would also be interesting to know if nanocellulose is used in other composite materials and what properties are then improved.
What are the most important glass/deposited layer parameters to take into account when maximizing transmission through a window in the visible region, but at the same time minimizing transmitted heat radiation? How does the gas in a window affect R/T/A, and specifically, what gases perform better than Argon?
We would like to look at different parameters for the glass and the deposited layer to maximize transmitted light in the visible region. At the same time we would like to minimize transmission of heat through the window over the hole spectrum (vis/nir/ir). Compare with our key product 46/13 in the attached file. The gas in between different layers of glass in a window also affect the total properties of the window. Argon is a gas commonly used...but what other alternatives are economically reasonable, and how does it affect the properties of the window? Compare with our key product 46/13 in the attached file.
Investigation of the distribution of metal atoms (Cd, Ni, Co) in briquettes – in depth, length and width. Use of chemisorption measurements to determine the metal dispersion (%) and metal surface area – distribution in the briquette? Other techniques?
The Active material is in powder or granulate form. What parameters will affect the metal distribution in the Active mass? Is there a de-mixing process? Do the dsitribution remain the same throughout production?
Methods to measure/simulate conductivity at different temperatures in electrolyte systems with multiple alkaline components. What is the state-of-the-art concerning non-halogenated flame retardants for polypropylene?
Today Saft uses both a binary and a ternary electrloyte with KOH, NaOH and LiOH and the niche for NiCd versus Lead-acid is in the temperature extremes, why it is needed to further explore potential improvements of the electrolyte blend. SAFT AB uses different types of polypropylene grades in their battery containers. Are there suitable non-halogenated additives on the market (or in development) that are efficient flame retardants, stable in strong alkaline solutions, non-conductive, weldable, and without a strong effect on the mechanical properties?
How does additive manufacturing process (powder properties, building parameters, etc.) affect the machinability of a given component compared to its standard counterpart. In a wider scope, what will be the consequence of additively manufacturing parts on the machining step. (specific cases can be addressed such like TiAl6V4, Inconel 718 and Reinforced plastics for aeronautics purpose)
Sandvik Coromant is a world leading producer of cutting tools. More and more customers are machining additively manufactured parts which leads in some case in decreasing machinability compare to the conventional version of the same material. Additive manufacturing technology involves complexes and numerous parameters that have a direct influence on material final properties and thus on its machinability. Therefore, the question tends to address a need in a better knowledge about most relevant factors that influence machinability.
Effect of coolant on sliding zones
For sliding under high load (as in insert cutting workpiece) it is know that 2 zones are created: a sliding zone and a shear zone. What is the effect of coolant on those zones if we compare to no coolant. For example what changes are there in adherence, friction, etc.
What parameters could mean that two tungsten carbide (6-10% Co) samples from the same batch could etch in different ways in the same chemical etchant?
When preparing tungsten carbide for CVD diamond coating, We have noticed that two tools that have been cut from the same rod can etch to different extents in the same beaker of etchant. We would like to understand this better.
How to add Unique Product Identification to stainless steel and alloy products?
Our aim is to find a way to add a unique product identifier to our stainless steel or alloy products like tubing, strip, wire or metal powder. To turn the product itself into a data collector, information carrier and knowledge provider that can be integrated into the information system. – The identifier needs to be unique in order to differentiate each manufactured product and must be readable and connectable to a data source, e.g. a QR-code. – In addition, we believe that the identifier will need to be an intrinsic part of the product and able to withstand both thermal and mechanical processing throughout the entire product life-cycle. This could include mechanical bending of our products, deformation, stamping, contact with acids and other chemicals etc.
What are the material challenges in offshore wave and tidal energy?
Renewables such as offshore wave and tidal energy are developing. These structures are in marine environment which can give substantial challenges for materials with respect mechanical strength, fatigue, corrosion etc. Today, several advanced corrosion resistant materials have been developed for demanding seawater service for other applications. What are the material challenges in wave and tidal energy, and in relation to the environment? Are available materials sufficient or is improved metallic materials needed?
How to optimize amino silanization of a planar glass slide in a practical production environment and which methods could be used for studying the thickness and/or coverage of a transparent organic thin film on a glass slide?
A functionalized glass slide is used as a substrate for an immunoassay platform. The question is aimed to deepen our knowledge on the surface functionalization and analysis of the coating properties.
What is the effect of reduction of surface oxides from the powder material before hipping?
There is an increasing demand on more clean steels in terms of oxide inclusions, especially via PM routes. What is the effect of the presence of surface oxides on the metal powder and how is that to regarded as an important factor when compared to other defects that can cause a product failure for HIPed steels? Is reduction annealing offering a significant solution towards that end? What are the limitations?
How to map types, (size) distrubution, crystallographic data of (secondary carbides) particles 1 - 20 nm?
Background: To be updated
How to measure distribution of retained austenite in AM produced parts versus conventionally manufactured parts with Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)? Evaluate the printability/weldability relationships for steels in AM (discussion point), (meeting with welding experts – suggested)
The precise measurement/quantification of retained austenite in steels has been an elusive topic. Diffraction techniques such as XRD, TEM and EBSD have been extensively utilized for such purpose, with each one having certain strengths and weaknesses. The results though from both cases tend to disagree to quite some extend. Is it possible to implement MFM as a complementary method to more accurately depict the nature of retained austenite in steels? The AM processes (PBF or LMD) have many similarities with welding. How could we benefit from all that knowledge existing in welding and design more tailored made alloys for AM (steels are of interest here)? Which are those models that can be transferred and adjusted to describe the AM process? Can simple and representative “printability” test methods be developed, in the same manner that weldability testing exists today for metal alloys, in order to reduce the development time of designing new alloys? This kind of efforts are booming in other countries (both inside and outside of Europe), what is the current status in Sweden?
How does external pressure influence the martensite starting/finishing temperature (Ms/Mf) in steels? Is it possible to have a high pressure dilatometer, or simulate isostatic pressure ? How does pressure influence grain growth within the austenitisation temperature range?
The martensite starting and finishing temperatures (Ms and Mf) are important parameters for optimization of heat treatments in steels and obtain the desired mechanical properties. While the dependency of Ms and Mf on alloy composition is well studied and e.g. empirical formulas are well established, there is lack of knowledge on the influence of applied pressure in the range of 1-1000 MPa. Is it possible to establish the semi-empirical methods for prediction of Ms/Mf at different pressure? Dilatometers are extensively used to experimentally determine CCT/TTT diagrams. However, they normally operate at ambient pressure or with a uniaxial stress. Do dilatometers supporting a isostatic pressure exist? What are the technological limitations in implementing such technology in commercially available instruments? It was reported that high isostatic pressure can modify the kinetics of dissolution or precipitation of secondary phases because of constraints in volume expansion. Are there any effects on the kinetics of grain growth at austenitisation temperature assuming the absence of secondary phases? Is it possible to predict/simulate an accelerated/slowed grain growth?
What type of materials and methods could be used to separate small particles, bacteria and viruses from a gas flow?
This will help in cleaning air flow for enhanced interior environment. Today paper filters are used for the purpose.
Which dirt repellent surface materials exsist without fluorinated substances?
Current method of treating sensitive surfaces have disadvantages from a chemical risk perspective. Are there any other way? This will be more important in the future with shared vehicles.
What are the suitable electronics and magnets without scarce and conflict metals/minerals for use in electrified vehicles?
What alternative materials exists? Could they enable future large scale introduction of electrified vehicles in a better way than many of the current rare earth minerals?
What are the possible composites that are easy to re-use or to separate at end of life?
Decouple the link between light weight composite materials and increased complexity in the recycling phase.
Are there any materials that can transform energy from heat (sun, body heat etc) to electricity?
Energy need for transport will be in focus for long. Energy storage limitations and energy need for other purposes than propulsion will push for alternative ways of on board generation of electricity
New biomaterials that fulfills automotive specifications (eg, smell, moisture, emissionfree…) or recycled automotive materials that fulfills automotive specifications? Are there any new materials that can be an alternative to leather in cars?
Increased use of more sustainable materials is a coming challenge for the automotive industry. A wide range of current requirements still needs to be fulfilled. Leather is used as a surface material not only in the seats today, e.g. steering wheel, gear lever, dashboard. Future need is to offer alternatives.
What are the current research on new materials that can increase your wellbeing, e.g. improve/monitor health, decrease stress, etc? What are the possible materials that can easily be formed (and re-formed) as the car seat, so there are no need for seat adjustments? Are there any smart materials that make it possible to personalize a car sharing car (eg have your own personal color and appearance of the car)?
Increasing interest in wellbeing among customers push for new functionality in the vehicle. This topic could have an increasing importance for self-driving (autonomous) cars. Multifunctional materials that enables combination of several functions into one component. This example with the seat could in theory enable removal of several motors and controls, reduce structural size and complexity, etc, resulting in reduced weight and environmental footprint. Smart materials that enable personalization without increasing the option complexity. Could the materials change with mood, daylight, use of vehicle, etc?